Chief Menawa was a famous leader of the Red Stick faction of Creek Indians dedicated to preserving the traditions and culture of the Creek nation. The Red Stick loss at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend against Andrew Jackson forced the Creeks to relinquish over 20 million acres of Creek land. Menawa remained a champion of the Creek Indians while the government aggressively continued to take their land and marginalize their people, until his death on the trail of tears in Arkansas.

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Encyclopedia of Alabama

Photos courtesy of: Alabama Department of Archives and History, Alamy, Getty Images